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California Laws | Civil Code

4. The word "month" means a calendar month, unless otherwise expressed; (43)

5. The word "will" includes codicil; (44)

6. The word "section" whenever hereinafter employed refers to a section of this code, unless some other code or statute is expressly mentioned. (45)

17. Wherever any notice or other communication is required by this code to be mailed by registered mail, the mailing of such notice or other communication by certified mail shall be deemed to be a sufficient compliance with the requirements of law. (46)

18. Notice is: (47)

1. Actual--which consists in express information of a fact; or, (48)

2. Constructive--which is imputed by law. (49)

19.] Section Nineteen. Every person who has actual notice of circumstances sufficient to put a prudent man upon inquiry as to a particular fact, has constructive notice of the fact itself in all cases in which, by prosecuting such inquiry, he might have learned such fact. (50)

20. No statute, law, or rule is continued in force because it is consistent with the provisions of this Code on the same subject; but in all cases provided for by this Code, all statutes, laws, and rules heretofore in force in this State, whether consistent or not with the provisions of this Code, unless expressly continued in force by it, are repealed or abrogated. (51)

This repeal or abrogation does not revive any former law heretofore repealed, nor does it affect any right already existing or accrued, or any action or proceeding already taken, except as in this Code provided. (52)

21. This Act, whenever cited, enumerated, referred to, or amended, may be designated simply as "THE CIVIL CODE," adding, when necessary, the number of the section. (53)

DEFINITIONS AND SOURCES OF LAW (22-22.2) (54)(Text)

22. Law is a solemn expression of the will of the supreme power of the State. (55)

22.1. The will of the supreme power is expressed: (56)

(a) By the Constitution. (57)

(b) By statutes. (58)

22.2. The common law of England, so far as it is not repugnant to or inconsistent with the Constitution of the United States, or the Constitution or laws of this State, is the rule of decision in all the courts of this State. (59)

EFFECT OF THE 1872 CODES (23-23.6) (60)(Text)

23. With relation to the laws passed at the 1872 Session of the Legislature, the Political Code, Civil Code, Code of Civil Procedure, and Penal Code, shall be construed as though each had been passed on the first day of the session. (61)

23.1. The provisions of any law passed at the 1872 Session of the Legislature which contravene or are inconsistent with the provisions of any of the four codes passed at the 1872 Session prevail. (62)

23.2. With relation to each other, the provisions of the four codes shall be construed as though all such codes had been passed at the same moment of time and were parts of the same statute. (63)

23.3. If the provisions of any title conflict with or contravene the provisions of another title, the provisions of each title shall prevail as to all matters and questions arising out of the subject matter of the title. (64)

23.4. If the provisions of any chapter conflict with or contravene the provisions of another chapter of the same title, the provisions of each chapter shall prevail as to all matters and questions arising out of the subject matter of the chapter. (65)

23.5. If the provisions of any article conflict with or contravene the provisions of another article of the same chapter, the provisions of each article shall prevail as to all matters and questions arising out of the subject matter of the article. (66)

23.6. If conflicting provisions are found in different sections of the same chapter or article, the provisions of the sections last in numerical order shall prevail, unless such construction is inconsistent with the meaning of the chapter or article. (67)

DIVISION 1. PERSONS (68)(Text)

PART 1. PERSONS WITH UNSOUND MIND (38-41) (69)(Text)

38. A person entirely without understanding has no power to make a contract of any kind, but the person is liable for the reasonable value of things furnished to the person necessary for the support of the person or the person's family. (70)

39. (a) A conveyance or other contract of a person of unsound mind, but not entirely without understanding, made before the incapacity of the person has been judicially determined, is subject to rescission, as provided in Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 1688) of Title 5 of Part 2 of Division 3. (71)

(b) A rebuttable presumption affecting the burden of proof that a person is of unsound mind shall exist for purposes of this section if the person is substantially unable to manage his or her own financial resources or resist fraud or undue influence. Substantial inability may not be proved solely by isolated incidents of negligence or improvidence. (72)

40. (a) Subject to Section 1871 of the Probate Code, and subject to Part 1 (commencing with Section 5000) of Division 5 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, after his or her incapacity has been judicially determined a person of unsound mind can make no conveyance or other contract, nor delegate any power or waive any right, until his or her restoration to capacity. (73)

(b) Subject to Sections 1873 to 1876, inclusive, of the Probate Code, the establishment of a conservatorship under Division 4 (commencing with Section 1400) of the Probate Code is a judicial determination of the incapacity of the conservatee for the purposes of this section. (74)

41. A person of unsound mind, of whatever degree, is civilly liable for a wrong done by the person, but is not liable in exemplary damages unless at the time of the act the person was capable of knowing that the act was wrongful. (75)

PART 2. PERSONAL RIGHTS (43-53) (76)(Text)

43. Besides the personal rights mentioned or recognized in the Government Code, every person has, subject to the qualifications and restrictions provided by law, the right of protection from bodily restraint or harm, from personal insult, from defamation, and from injury to his personal relations. (77)

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