Texas Law
Texas Constitution


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Texas Laws | Texas Constitution

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ARTICLE 1. BILL OF RIGHTS

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Sec. 2. INHERENT POLITICAL POWER; REPUBLICAN FORM OF GOVERNMENT.

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Sec. 3. EQUAL RIGHTS.

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Sec. 3a. EQUALITY UNDER THE LAW.

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Sec. 4. RELIGIOUS TESTS.

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Sec. 5. WITNESSES NOT DISQUALIFIED BY RELIGIOUS BELIEFS; OATHS AND AFFIRMATIONS.

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Sec. 6. FREEDOM OF WORSHIP.

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Sec. 7. APPROPRIATIONS FOR SECTARIAN PURPOSES.

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Sec. 8. FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND PRESS; LIBEL.

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Sec. 9. SEARCHES AND SEIZURES.

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Sec. 10. RIGHTS OF ACCUSED IN CRIMINAL PROSECUTIONS.

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Sec. 11. BAIL.

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Sec. 11a. MULTIPLE CONVICTIONS; DENIAL OF BAIL.

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Sec. 11b. VIOLATION OF CONDITION OF RELEASE PENDING TRIAL; DENIAL OF BAIL.

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Sec. 11c. VIOLATION OF AN ORDER FOR EMERGENCY PROTECTION INVOLVING FAMILY VIOLENCE.

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Sec. 12. HABEAS CORPUS.

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Sec. 13. EXCESSIVE BAIL OR FINES; CRUEL AND UNUSUAL PUNISHMENT; REMEDY BY DUE COURSE OF LAW.

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Sec. 14. DOUBLE JEOPARDY.

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Sec. 15. RIGHT OF TRIAL BY JURY.

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Sec. 15-a. COMMITMENT OF PERSONS OF UNSOUND MIND.

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Sec. 16. BILLS OF ATTAINDER; EX POST FACTO OR RETROACTIVE LAWS; IMPAIRING OBLIGATION OF CONTRACTS.

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Sec. 18. IMPRISONMENT FOR DEBT.

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Sec. 19. DEPRIVATION OF LIFE, LIBERTY, ETC.

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Sec. 20. OUTLAWRY OR TRANSPORTATION FOR OFFENSE.

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Sec. 21. CORRUPTION OF BLOOD; FORFEITURE; SUICIDES.

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Sec. 22. TREASON.

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Sec. 23. RIGHT TO KEEP AND BEAR ARMS.

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Sec. 24. MILITARY SUBORDINATE TO CIVIL AUTHORITY.

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Sec. 25. QUARTERING SOLDIERS IN HOUSES.

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Sec. 26. PERPETUITIES AND MONOPOLIES; PRIMOGENITURE OR ENTAILMENTS.

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Sec. 27. RIGHT OF ASSEMBLY; PETITION FOR REDRESS OF GRIEVANCES.

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Sec. 28. SUSPENSION OF LAWS.

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Sec. 29. PROVISIONS OF BILL OF RIGHTS EXCEPTED FROM POWERS OF GOVERNMENT; TO FOREVER REMAIN INVIOLATE.

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Sec. 31. COMPENSATION TO VICTIMS OF CRIME FUND; COMPENSATION TO VICTIMS OF CRIME AUXILIARY FUND; USE OF FUND MONEY.

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Sec. 32. MARRIAGE.

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Sec. 33. ACCESS AND USE OF PUBLIC BEACHES.

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ARTICLE 2. THE POWERS OF GOVERNMENT

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Sec. 1. DIVISION OF POWERS; THREE SEPARATE DEPARTMENTS; EXERCISE OF POWER PROPERLY ATTACHED TO OTHER DEPARTMENTS.

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ARTICLE 3. LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT

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Sec. 1. SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.

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Sec. 2. MEMBERSHIP OF SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.

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Sec. 3. ELECTION AND TERM OF OFFICE OF SENATORS.

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Sec. 4. ELECTION AND TERM OF MEMBERS OF HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.

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Sec. 5. MEETINGS; ORDER OF BUSINESS.

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Sec. 6. QUALIFICATIONS OF SENATORS.

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Sec. 7. QUALIFICATIONS OF REPRESENTATIVES.

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Sec. 8. EACH HOUSE JUDGE OF QUALIFICATIONS AND ELECTION; CONTESTS.

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Sec. 9. PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE OF SENATE; LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR OFFICE VACANCY; SPEAKER OF HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.

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Sec. 10. QUORUM; ADJOURNMENTS FROM DAY TO DAY; COMPELLING ATTENDANCE.

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Sec. 11. RULES OF PROCEDURE; EXPULSION OF MEMBER.

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Sec. 12. JOURNALS OF PROCEEDINGS; ENTERING YEAS AND NAYS.

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Sec. 13. VACANCIES; WRITS OF ELECTION.

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Sec. 14. PRIVILEGED FROM ARREST.

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Sec. 15. DISRESPECTFUL OR DISORDERLY CONDUCT; OBSTRUCTION OF PROCEEDINGS.

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Sec. 16. OPEN SESSIONS.

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Sec. 17. ADJOURNMENTS.

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Sec. 18. INELIGIBILITY FOR OTHER OFFICES; INTEREST IN CONTRACTS.

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Sec. 19. INELIGIBILITY OF PERSONS HOLDING OTHER OFFICES.

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Sec. 20. COLLECTORS OF TAXES; PERSONS ENTRUSTED WITH PUBLIC MONEY; INELIGIBILITY.

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Sec. 21. WORDS SPOKEN IN DEBATE.

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Sec. 22. DISCLOSURE OF PRIVATE INTEREST IN MEASURE OR BILL; NOT TO VOTE.

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Sec. 23. REMOVAL FROM DISTRICT OR COUNTY FROM WHICH ELECTED.

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Sec. 23a. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 24. COMPENSATION AND EXPENSES OF MEMBERS OF LEGISLATURE; DURATION OF SESSIONS.

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Sec. 25. SENATORIAL DISTRICTS.

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Sec. 26. APPORTIONMENT OF MEMBERS OF HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.

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Sec. 26a. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 27. ELECTIONS.

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Sec. 28. TIME FOR APPORTIONMENT; APPORTIONMENT BY LEGISLATIVE REDISTRICTING BOARD.

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Sec. 29. ENACTING CLAUSE OF LAWS.

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Sec. 30. LAWS PASSED BY BILL; AMENDMENTS CHANGING PURPOSE.

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Sec. 31. ORIGINATION IN EITHER HOUSE; AMENDMENT.

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Sec. 32. READING ON THREE SEVERAL DAYS; SUSPENSION OF RULE.

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Sec. 33. REVENUE BILLS.

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Sec. 34. DEFEATED BILLS AND RESOLUTIONS.

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Sec. 35. SUBJECTS AND TITLES OF BILLS.

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Sec. 36. REVIVAL OR AMENDMENT BY REFERENCE; RE-ENACTMENT AND PUBLICATION AT LENGTH.

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Sec. 37. REFERENCE TO COMMITTEE AND REPORT.

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Sec. 38. SIGNING BILLS AND JOINT RESOLUTIONS; ENTRY ON JOURNALS.

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Sec. 39. TIME OF TAKING EFFECT OF LAWS; EMERGENCIES; ENTRY ON JOURNAL.

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Sec. 40. SPECIAL SESSIONS; SUBJECTS OF LEGISLATION; DURATION.

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Sec. 41. ELECTIONS BY SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.

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Sec. 42. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 43. REVISION OF LAWS.

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Sec. 44. COMPENSATION OF PUBLIC OFFICERS, SERVANTS, AGENTS, AND CONTRACTORS; EXTRA COMPENSATION; UNAUTHORIZED CLAIMS; UNAUTHORIZED EMPLOYMENT.

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Sec. 45. CHANGE OF VENUE IN CIVIL AND CRIMINAL CASES.

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Sec. 46. UNIFORMITY IN COLLECTION OF FEES.

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Sec. 47. LOTTERIES AND GIFT ENTERPRISES; BINGO GAMES.

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Sec. 48. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 48-d. (Repealed Sept.

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Sec. 48-e. EMERGENCY SERVICES DISTRICTS.

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Sec. 48-f. JAIL DISTRICTS.

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Sec. 49a. FINANCIAL STATEMENT AND ESTIMATE BY COMPTROLLER OF PUBLIC ACCOUNTS; LIMITATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

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Sec. 49-b. VETERANS' LAND BOARD; BOND ISSUES; VETERANS' LAND FUND; VETERANS' HOUSING ASSISTANCE FUND; VETERANS' HOUSING ASSISTANCE FUND II.

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Sec. 49-c. TEXAS WATER DEVELOPMENT BOARD; BOND ISSUE; TEXAS WATER DEVELOPMENT FUND.

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Sec. 49-d. ACQUISITION AND DEVELOPMENT OF WATER STORAGE FACILITIES; FILTRATION, TREATMENT, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WATER; ENLARGEMENT OF RESERVOIRS.

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Sec. 49-d-1. ADDITIONAL TEXAS WATER DEVELOPMENT BONDS.

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Sec. 49-d-2. ADDITIONAL BONDING AUTHORITY OF TEXAS WATER DEVELOPMENT BOARD; DEDICATED USE OF SOME PROCEEDS.

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Sec. 49-d-3. CREATION AND USE OF SPECIAL FUNDS FOR WATER PROJECTS.

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Sec. 49-d-4. BOND INSURANCE PROGRAM FOR WATER PROJECTS.

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Sec. 49-d-5. EXTENSION OF BENEFITS TO NONPROFIT WATER SUPPLY CORPORATIONS.

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Sec. 49-d-6. ADDITIONAL TEXAS WATER DEVELOPMENT BONDS; USE OF BONDS; REVIEW AND APPROVAL.

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Sec. 49-d-7. ADDITIONAL TEXAS WATER DEVELOPMENT BONDS; USE OF BONDS AND PROCEEDS; REVIEW AND APPROVAL.

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Sec. 49-d-8. TEXAS WATER DEVELOPMENT FUND II.

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Sec. 49-d-9. ISSUANCE OF ADDITIONAL GENERAL OBLIGATION BONDS.

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Sec. 49-d-10. BONDS TO FUND ADDITIONAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO ECONOMICALLY DISTRESSED AREAS.

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Sec. 49-d-11. CONTINUING AUTHORIZATION FOR ADDITIONAL BONDS FOR TEXAS WATER DEVELOPMENT FUND II.

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Sec. 49-e. TEXAS PARK DEVELOPMENT FUND.

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Sec. 49-f. BONDS TO FUND FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO PURCHASE FARM AND RANCH LAND.

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Sec. 49-g. ECONOMIC STABILIZATION FUND.

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Sec. 49-h. BOND ISSUES FOR FACILITIES OF CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS, STATEWIDE LAW ENFORCEMENT FACILITIES, AND MENTAL HEALTH AND MENTAL RETARDATION INSTITUTIONS.

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Sec. 49-i. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL FUND.

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Sec. 49-j. LIMIT ON STATE DEBT PAYABLE FROM GENERAL REVENUE FUND.

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Sec. 49-l. FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO COUNTIES FOR ROADWAY PROJECTS TO SERVE BORDER COLONIAS.

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Sec. 49-m. TEXAS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SHORT-TERM NOTES AND LOANS.

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Sec. 49-n. HIGHWAY TAX AND REVENUE ANTICIPATION NOTES.

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Sec. 49-n. GENERAL OBLIGATION BONDS AND NOTES FOR MILITARY VALUE REVOLVING LOAN ACCOUNT.

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Sec. 49-p. TEXAS TRANSPORTATION COMMISSION; TEXAS HIGHWAY IMPROVEMENT FUNDS.

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Sec. 50. LOAN OR PLEDGE OF CREDIT OF STATE.

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Sec. 50a. STATE MEDICAL EDUCATION BOARD; STATE MEDICAL EDUCATION FUND; PURPOSE.

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Sec. 50b. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 50b-1. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 50b-2. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 50b-3. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 50b-4. ADDITIONAL STUDENT LOANS.

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Sec. 50b-5. ADDITIONAL STUDENT LOANS.

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Sec. 50b-6. ADDITIONAL STUDENT LOANS.

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Sec. 50b-6A. AUTHORIZING BOND ENHANCEMENT AGREEMENTS WITH RESPECT TO BONDS ISSUED FOR ADDITIONAL STUDENT LOANS.

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Sec. 50b-7. CONTINUING AUTHORIZATION FOR ADDITIONAL BONDS FOR STUDENT LOANS.

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Sec. 50c. FARM AND RANCH LOANS.

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Sec. 50-d. AGRICULTURAL WATER CONSERVATION BONDS.

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Sec. 50-e. GUARANTEE OF TEXAS GRAIN WAREHOUSE SELF-INSURANCE FUND.

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Sec. 50-f. ISSUANCE OF GENERAL OBLIGATION BONDS FOR CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR PROJECTS; PURCHASE OF EQUIPMENT.

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Sec. 50-g. GENERAL OBLIGATION BONDS ISSUED FOR MAINTENANCE, IMPROVEMENT, REPAIR, OR CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS.

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Sec. 51. GRANTS OF PUBLIC MONEY PROHIBITED; EXCEPTIONS.

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Sec. 51-a. ASSISTANCE GRANTS AND MEDICAL CARE FOR NEEDY AGED, DISABLED, AND BLIND PERSONS AND NEEDY CHILDREN; FEDERAL FUNDS.

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Sec. 51-b. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 51-c. AID OR COMPENSATION TO PERSONS IMPROPERLY FINED OR IMPRISONED.

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Sec. 51-d. PAYMENT OF ASSISTANCE TO SURVIVORS OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AND OTHER OFFICERS.

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Sec. 51g. SOCIAL SECURITY COVERAGE OF PROPRIETARY EMPLOYEES OF POLITICAL SUBDIVISIONS.

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Sec. 52. COUNTIES, CITIES OR OTHER POLITICAL CORPORATIONS OR SUBDIVISIONS; LENDING CREDIT; GRANTS; BONDS.

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Sec. 52-a. LOAN OR GRANT OF PUBLIC MONEY FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT.

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Sec. 52-b. LOAN OF STATE'S CREDIT OR GRANT OF PUBLIC MONEY FOR TOLL ROAD PURPOSES.

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Sec. 52d. COUNTY OR ROAD DISTRICT TAX FOR ROAD PURPOSES.

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Sec. 52e. PAYMENT OF MEDICAL EXPENSES OF LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS.

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Sec. 52f. PRIVATE ROAD WORK BY CERTAIN COUNTIES.

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Sec. 52g. DALLAS COUNTY BOND ISSUES FOR ROADS AND TURNPIKES.

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Sec. 52h. MUNICIPALITIES TO DONATE OUTDATED OR SURPLUS FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT TO UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES.

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Sec. 52i. MUNICIPALITIES TO DONATE SURPLUS FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT FOR RURAL FIRE PROTECTION.

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Sec. 52k. MUNICIPALITY OR COUNTY BOND OR NOTE ISSUES TO ACQUIRE LAND SURROUNDING MILITARY INSTALLATIONS.

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Sec. 53. COUNTY OR MUNICIPAL AUTHORITIES; EXTRA COMPENSATION; UNAUTHORIZED CLAIMS.

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Sec. 54. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 55. RELEASE OR EXTINGUISHMENT OF INDEBTEDNESS TO STATE, COUNTY, SUBDIVISION, OR MUNICIPAL CORPORATION.

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Sec. 57. NOTICE OF INTENTION TO APPLY FOR LOCAL OR SPECIAL LAWS.

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Sec. 58. SEAT OF GOVERNMENT.

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Sec. 59. WORKERS' COMPENSATION INSURANCE FOR STATE EMPLOYEES.

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Sec. 60. WORKERS' COMPENSATION INSURANCE FOR EMPLOYEES OF COUNTIES AND OTHER POLITICAL SUBDIVISIONS.

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Sec. 61. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 61-a. MINIMUM SALARIES.

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Sec. 62. CONTINUITY OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTAL OPERATIONS; SUSPENSION OF CONSTITUTIONAL PROCEDURAL RULES.

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Sec. 63. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 64. CONSOLIDATION OF GOVERNMENTAL OFFICES AND FUNCTIONS.

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Sec. 65. PUBLIC BONDS; INTEREST RATE; CONFLICTING RATES REPEALED; VETERANS' LAND BOARD BONDS.

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Sec. 66. LIMITATION ON LIABILITY FOR NONECONOMIC DAMAGES.

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ARTICLE 4. EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT

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Sec. 1. OFFICERS CONSTITUTING THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT.

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Sec. 2. ELECTION OF OFFICERS OF EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT.

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Sec. 3. RETURNS OF ELECTION; DECLARATION OF ELECTION; TIE VOTES; CONTESTS.

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Sec. 3a. DEATH, DISABILITY, OR FAILURE TO QUALIFY OF PERSON RECEIVING HIGHEST VOTE.

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Sec. 4. INSTALLATION OF GOVERNOR; TERM; ELIGIBILITY.

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Sec. 5. COMPENSATION OF GOVERNOR.

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Sec. 6. HOLDING OTHER OFFICES; PRACTICE OF PROFESSION; OTHER SALARY, REWARD, OR COMPENSATION.

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Sec. 7. COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF MILITARY FORCES; CALLING FORTH MILITIA.

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Sec. 8. CONVENING LEGISLATURE ON EXTRAORDINARY OCCASIONS.

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Sec. 9. GOVERNOR'S MESSAGE AND RECOMMENDATIONS; ACCOUNTING FOR PUBLIC MONEY; ESTIMATES OF MONEY REQUIRED.

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Sec. 10. EXECUTION OF LAWS; CONDUCT OF BUSINESS WITH OTHER STATES AND UNITED STATES.

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Sec. 11. BOARD OF PARDONS AND PAROLES; PAROLE LAWS; REPRIEVES, COMMUTATIONS, AND PARDONS; REMISSION OF FINES AND FORFEITURES.

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Sec. 11A. SUSPENSION OF SENTENCE AND PROBATION.

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Sec. 12. VACANCIES IN STATE OR DISTRICT OFFICES.

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Sec. 13. RESIDENCE OF GOVERNOR.

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Sec. 14. APPROVAL OR DISAPPROVAL OF BILLS; RETURN AND RECONSIDERATION; FAILURE TO RETURN; DISAPPROVAL OF ITEMS OF APPROPRIATION.

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Sec. 15. APPROVAL OR DISAPPROVAL OF ORDERS, RESOLUTIONS, OR VOTES.

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Sec. 16. LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR.

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Sec. 17. DEATH, RESIGNATION, REFUSAL TO SERVE, REMOVAL, INABILITY TO SERVE, IMPEACHMENT, OR ABSENCE; COMPENSATION.

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Sec. 18. RESTRICTIONS AND INHIBITIONS.

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Sec. 19. SEAL OF STATE.

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Sec. 20. COMMISSIONS.

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Sec. 21. SECRETARY OF STATE.

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Sec. 22. ATTORNEY GENERAL.

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Sec. 23. COMPTROLLER OF PUBLIC ACCOUNTS; COMMISSIONER OF GENERAL LAND OFFICE; ELECTED STATUTORY STATE OFFICERS; TERM; SALARY; FEES, COSTS AND PERQUISITES.

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Sec. 24. ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS; INFORMATION TO, AND INSPECTION BY, GOVERNOR; PERJURY.

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Sec. 25. CUSTODIANS OF PUBLIC FUNDS; BREACHES OF TRUST AND DUTY.

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Sec. 26. NOTARIES PUBLIC.

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ARTICLE 5. JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT

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Sec. 1. JUDICIAL POWER; COURTS IN WHICH VESTED.

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Sec. 1-a. RETIREMENT, CENSURE, REMOVAL, AND COMPENSATION OF JUSTICES AND JUDGES; STATE COMMISSION ON JUDICIAL CONDUCT; PROCEDURE.

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Sec. 2. SUPREME COURT; JUSTICES; SECTIONS; ELIGIBILITY; ELECTION; VACANCIES.

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Sec. 3. JURISDICTION OF SUPREME COURT; WRITS; CLERK.

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Sec. 3a. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 3-b. APPEAL FROM ORDER GRANTING OR DENYING INJUNCTION.

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Sec. 3-c. JURISDICTION TO ANSWER QUESTIONS OF STATE LAW CERTIFIED FROM FEDERAL APPELLATE COURT.

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Sec. 4. COURT OF CRIMINAL APPEALS; JUDGES.

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Sec. 5. JURISDICTION OF COURT OF CRIMINAL APPEALS; TERMS OF COURT; CLERK.

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Sec. 5a. SUPREME COURT, COURT OF CRIMINAL APPEALS, COURT OF APPEALS; CLERK OF COURT; TERMS.

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Sec. 5b. SUPREME COURT, COURT OF CRIMINAL APPEALS; LOCATION; TERM.

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Sec. 6. COURTS OF APPEALS; TERMS OF JUSTICES; CLERKS.

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Sec. 7. JUDICIAL DISTRICTS; DISTRICT JUDGES; TERMS OR SESSIONS; ABSENCE, DISABILITY, OR DISQUALIFICATION OF JUDGE.

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Sec. 7a. JUDICIAL DISTRICTS BOARD; REAPPORTIONMENT OF JUDICIAL DISTRICTS.

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Sec. 8. JURISDICTION OF DISTRICT COURT.

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Sec. 9. CLERK OF DISTRICT COURT.

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Sec. 10. TRIAL BY JURY.

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Sec. 11. DISQUALIFICATION OF JUDGES; EXCHANGE OF DISTRICTS; HOLDING COURT FOR OTHER JUDGES.

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Sec. 12. JUDGES TO BE CONSERVATORS OF THE PEACE; INDICTMENTS AND INFORMATION.

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Sec. 13. NUMBER OF GRAND AND PETIT JURORS; NUMBER CONCURRING.

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Sec. 14. JUROR QUALIFICATIONS.

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Sec. 15. COUNTY COURT; COUNTY JUDGE.

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Sec. 16. COUNTY COURTS; JURISDICTION; DISQUALIFICATION OF JUDGE.

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Sec. 16a. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 17. TERMS OF COUNTY COURT; PROSECUTIONS; JURIES.

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Sec. 18. DIVISION OF COUNTIES INTO PRECINCTS; ELECTION OF CONSTABLE AND JUSTICE OF THE PEACE; COUNTY COMMISSIONERS AND COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COURT.

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Sec. 19. JUSTICES OF THE PEACE; JURISDICTION; EX OFFICIO NOTARIES PUBLIC.

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Sec. 20. COUNTY CLERK.

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Sec. 21. COUNTY ATTORNEYS; DISTRICT ATTORNEYS.

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Sec. 22. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 23. SHERIFFS.

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Sec. 24. REMOVAL OF COUNTY OFFICERS.

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Sec. 25. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 26. CRIMINAL CASES; APPEAL BY STATE.

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Sec. 27. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 28. VACANCY IN OFFICE OF SUPREME COURT, COURT OF CRIMINAL APPEALS, COURT OF APPEALS AND DISTRICT COURTS TO BE FILLED BY THE GOVERNOR.

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Sec. 29. COUNTY COURT; TERMS OF COURT; PROBATE BUSINESS; COMMENCEMENT OF PROSECUTIONS; JURY.

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Sec. 30. JUDGES OF COURTS OF COUNTY-WIDE JURISDICTION; CRIMINAL DISTRICT ATTORNEYS.

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Sec. 31. COURT ADMINISTRATION; RULE-MAKING AUTHORITY; ACTION ON MOTION FOR REHEARING.

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ARTICLE 6. SUFFRAGE

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Sec. 2. QUALIFIED ELECTOR; REGISTRATION; ABSENTEE VOTING.

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Sec. 2a. VOTING FOR PRESIDENTIAL AND VICE-PRESIDENTIAL ELECTORS AND STATEWIDE OFFICES; QUALIFIED PERSONS EXCEPT FOR RESIDENCE REQUIREMENTS.

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Sec. 3. MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS; QUALIFICATIONS OF VOTERS.

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Sec. 3a. BOND ISSUES; LOANS OF CREDIT; EXPENDITURES; ASSUMPTION OF DEBTS; QUALIFICATIONS OF VOTERS.

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Sec. 4. ELECTIONS BY BALLOT; NUMBERING, FRAUD, AND PURITY OF ELECTIONS; REGISTRATION OF VOTERS.

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Sec. 5. PRIVILEGE OF VOTERS FROM ARREST.

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ARTICLE 7. EDUCATION

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Sec. 1. SUPPORT AND MAINTENANCE OF SYSTEM OF PUBLIC FREE SCHOOLS.

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Sec. 2. PERMANENT SCHOOL FUND.

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Sec. 2A. RELEASE OF CLAIM TO CERTAIN LANDS AND MINERALS WITHIN SHELBY, FRAZIER, AND MCCORMICK LEAGUE AND IN BASTROP COUNTY.

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Sec. 3. TAXES FOR BENEFIT OF SCHOOLS; SCHOOL DISTRICTS.

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Sec. 3a. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 3-b. INDEPENDENT SCHOOL DISTRICTS AND JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICTS; TAXES AND BONDS; CHANGES IN BOUNDARIES.

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Sec. 4. SALE OF LANDS; INVESTMENT OF PROCEEDS.

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Sec. 4A. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 4B. INDEPENDENT SCHOOL DISTRICT; BOARD OF TRUSTEES; DONATION OF REAL PROPERTY AND IMPROVEMENTS.

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Sec. 5. PERMANENT SCHOOL FUND; AVAILABLE SCHOOL FUND; USE OF FUNDS; DISTRIBUTION OF AVAILABLE SCHOOL FUND.

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Sec. 6. COUNTY SCHOOL LANDS; PROCEEDS OF SALES; INVESTMENT; AVAILABLE SCHOOL FUND.

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Sec. 6a. COUNTY AGRICULTURAL OR GRAZING SCHOOL LAND SUBJECT TO TAX.

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Sec. 6b. REDUCTION OF COUNTY PERMANENT SCHOOL FUND; DISTRIBUTION.

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Sec. 7. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 8. STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION.

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Sec. 9. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 9-a. (Added Nov.

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Sec. 10. ESTABLISHMENT OF UNIVERSITY; AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT.

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Sec. 11. PERMANENT UNIVERSITY FUND; INVESTMENT; ALTERNATE SECTIONS OF RAILROAD GRANT.

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Sec. 11a. INVESTMENT OF PERMANENT UNIVERSITY FUND.

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Sec. 11b. PERMANENT UNIVERSITY FUND; AUTHORIZED INVESTMENTS.

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Sec. 12. SALE OF LANDS.

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Sec. 13. AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE.

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Sec. 14. PRAIRIE VIEW A&M UNIVERSITY.

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Sec. 15. GRANT OF ADDITIONAL LANDS TO UNIVERSITY.

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Sec. 16. COUNTY TAXATION OF UNIVERSITY LANDS.

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Sec. 16-a. TERMS OF OFFICE.

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Sec. 17. COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES; APPROPRIATIONS AND FUNDING.

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Sec. 19. TEXAS TOMORROW FUND.

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Sec. 20. NATIONAL RESEARCH UNIVERSITY FUND.

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ARTICLE 8. TAXATION AND REVENUE

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Sec. 1. EQUALITY AND UNIFORMITY; TAX IN PROPORTION TO VALUE; INCOME TAX; EXEMPTION OF CERTAIN TANGIBLE PERSONAL PROPERTY FROM AD VALOREM TAXATION.

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Sec. 1-a. NO STATE AD VALOREM TAX LEVY; COUNTY LEVY FOR ROADS AND FLOOD CONTROL; TAX DONATIONS.

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Sec. 1-b. RESIDENCE HOMESTEAD EXEMPTION.

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Sec. 1-b-1. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 1-c. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 1-d. ASSESSMENT OF LANDS DESIGNATED FOR AGRICULTURAL USE.

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Sec. 1-d-1. TAXATION OF CERTAIN OPEN-SPACE LAND.

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Sec. 1-e. ABOLITION OF AD VALOREM PROPERTY TAXES.

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Sec. 1-g. DEVELOPMENT OR REDEVELOPMENT OF PROPERTY; AD VALOREM TAX RELIEF AND ISSUANCE OF BONDS AND NOTES.

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Sec. 1-h. VALIDATION OF ASSESSMENT RATIO.

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Sec. 1-i. MOBILE MARINE DRILLING EQUIPMENT; AD VALOREM TAX RELIEF.

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Sec. 1-k. NONPROFIT CORPORATIONS SUPPLYING WATER OR PROVIDING WASTEWATER SERVICES; EXEMPTION OF PROPERTY FROM AD VALOREM TAXATION.

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Sec. 1-l. PROPERTY USED FOR CONTROL OF AIR, WATER, OR LAND POLLUTION; EXEMPTION FROM AD VALOREM TAXATION.

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Sec. 1-m. PROPERTY ON WHICH WATER CONSERVATION INITIATIVE HAS BEEN IMPLEMENTED; EXEMPTION FROM AD VALOREM TAXATION.

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Sec. 1-n. AUTHORIZATION TO EXEMPT FROM AD VALOREM TAXATION RAW COCOA AND GREEN COFFEE.

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Sec. 1-o. RURAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT; LIMITATION ON AD VALOREM TAX INCREASE.

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Sec. 2. OCCUPATION TAXES; EQUALITY AND UNIFORMITY; EXEMPTIONS FROM TAXATION.

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Sec. 3. GENERAL LAWS; PUBLIC PURPOSES.

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Sec. 4. SURRENDER OR SUSPENSION OF TAXING POWER.

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Sec. 5. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 6. WITHDRAWAL OF MONEY FROM TREASURY; DURATION OF APPROPRIATION.

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Sec. 7. BORROWING, WITHHOLDING, OR DIVERTING SPECIAL FUNDS.

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Sec. 7-a. REVENUES FROM MOTOR VEHICLE REGISTRATION FEES AND TAXES ON MOTOR FUELS AND LUBRICANTS; PURPOSES FOR WHICH USED.

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Sec. 7-b. REVENUES FROM FEDERAL REIMBURSEMENT; PURPOSES FOR WHICH USED.

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Sec. 8. RAILROAD COMPANIES; ASSESSMENT AND COLLECTION OF TAXES.

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Sec. 9. MAXIMUM STATE TAX; COUNTY, CITY, AND TOWN LEVIES; COUNTY FUNDS; LOCAL ROAD LAWS.

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Sec. 10. RELEASE FROM PAYMENT OF TAXES.

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Sec. 11. PLACE OF ASSESSMENT; VALUE OF PROPERTY NOT RENDERED BY OWNER.

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Sec. 12. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 13. SALES OF LANDS AND OTHER PROPERTY FOR TAXES; REDEMPTION.

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Sec. 14. ASSESSOR AND COLLECTOR OF TAXES.

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Sec. 15. LIEN OF ASSESSMENT; SEIZURE AND SALE OF PROPERTY.

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Sec. 16. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 16a. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 17. SPECIFICATION OF SUBJECTS NOT LIMITATION OF LEGISLATURE'S POWER.

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Sec. 18. EQUALIZATION OF VALUATIONS; SINGLE APPRAISAL.

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Sec. 19. FARM PRODUCTS, LIVESTOCK, POULTRY, AND FAMILY SUPPLIES; EXEMPTION.

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Sec. 19a. IMPLEMENTS OF HUSBANDRY; EXEMPTION.

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Sec. 20. FAIR CASH MARKET VALUE NOT TO BE EXCEEDED; DISCOUNTS FOR ADVANCE PAYMENT.

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Sec. 21. INCREASE IN TOTAL PROPERTY TAXES; NOTICE AND HEARING; CALCULATION.

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Sec. 22. RESTRICTION ON APPROPRIATIONS.

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Sec. 23. APPRAISAL OF PROPERTY; ENFORCEMENT OF STANDARDS.

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Sec. 24. PERSONAL INCOME TAX; DEDICATION OF PROCEEDS.

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ARTICLE 9. COUNTIES

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Sec. 1-A. COUNTIES BORDERING ON GULF OF MEXICO OR TIDEWATER LIMITS THEREOF; REGULATION OF MOTOR VEHICLES ON BEACHES.

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Sec. 2. REMOVAL OF COUNTY SEATS.

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Sec. 3. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 4. COUNTY-WIDE HOSPITAL DISTRICTS.

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Sec. 5. CITY OF AMARILLO; WICHITA COUNTY; JEFFERSON COUNTY; CREATION AND FUNDING OF HOSPITAL DISTRICTS.

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Sec. 6. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 7. HIDALGO COUNTY HOSPITAL DISTRICT; CREATION; TAX RATE.

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Sec. 8. COUNTY COMMISSIONERS PRECINCT NO.

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Sec. 9. HOSPITAL DISTRICTS; CREATION, OPERATION, POWERS, DUTIES AND DISSOLUTION.

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Sec. 9A. HOSPITAL DISTRICTS; REGULATION OF HEALTH CARE SERVICES.

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Sec. 9B. HOSPITAL DISTRICTS IN COUNTIES WITH POPULATION OF 75,000 OR LESS.

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Sec. 11. HOSPITAL DISTRICTS; OCHILTREE, CASTRO, HANSFORD, AND HOPKINS COUNTIES; CREATION; TAXES.

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Sec. 12. AIRPORT AUTHORITIES.

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Sec. 13. PARTICIPATION OF MUNICIPALITIES AND OTHER POLITICAL SUBDIVISIONS IN ESTABLISHMENT OF MENTAL HEALTH, MENTAL RETARDATION, OR PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES.

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Sec. 14. COUNTY POOR HOUSE AND FARM.

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ARTICLE 10. RAILROADS

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Sec. 1. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 2. PUBLIC HIGHWAYS; COMMON CARRIERS; REGULATION OF TARIFFS, CORRECTION OF ABUSES, AND PREVENTION OF DISCRIMINATION AND EXTORTION; MEANS AND AGENCIES.

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Sec. 3. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 4. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 5. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 6. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 7. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 8. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 9. (Repealed Aug.

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ARTICLE 11. MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS

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Sec. 1. COUNTIES AS LEGAL SUBDIVISIONS.

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Sec. 2. JAILS, COURT-HOUSES, BRIDGES, AND ROADS.

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Sec. 3. SUBSCRIPTIONS TO CORPORATE CAPITAL; DONATIONS; LOAN OF CREDIT.

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Sec. 4. CITIES AND TOWNS WITH POPULATION OF 5,000 OR LESS; CHARTERED BY GENERAL LAW; TAXES; FINES, FORFEITURES, AND PENALTIES.

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Sec. 5. CITIES OF MORE THAN 5,000 POPULATION; ADOPTION OR AMENDMENT OF CHARTERS; TAXES; DEBT RESTRICTIONS.

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Sec. 6. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 7. COUNTIES AND CITIES ON GULF OF MEXICO; TAX FOR SEA WALLS, BREAKWATERS, AND SANITATION; BONDS; CONDEMNATION OF RIGHT OF WAY.

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Sec. 8. DONATION OF PORTION OF PUBLIC DOMAIN TO AID IN CONSTRUCTION OF SEA WALLS OR BREAKWATERS.

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Sec. 9. PROPERTY EXEMPT FROM FORCED SALE AND FROM TAXATION.

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Sec. 10. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 11. TERM OF OFFICE EXCEEDING TWO YEARS IN HOME RULE AND GENERAL LAW CITIES; VACANCIES.

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Sec. 12. EXPENDITURES FOR RELOCATION OR REPLACEMENT OF SANITATION SEWER OR WATER LATERALS ON PRIVATE PROPERTY.

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Sec. 13. CLASSIFICATION OF MUNICIPAL FUNCTIONS.

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ARTICLE 12. PRIVATE CORPORATIONS

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Sec. 1. CREATION BY GENERAL LAWS.

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Sec. 2. GENERAL LAWS TO BE ENACTED; PROTECTION OF PUBLIC AND STOCKHOLDERS.

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Sec. 3. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 4. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 5. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 6. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 7. (Repealed Aug.

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ARTICLE 14. PUBLIC LANDS AND LAND OFFICE

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Sec. 1. GENERAL LAND OFFICE.

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Sec. 2. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 3. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 4. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 5. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 6. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 7. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 8. (Repealed Aug.

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ARTICLE 15. IMPEACHMENT

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Sec. 1. POWER OF IMPEACHMENT.

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Sec. 2. TRIAL OF IMPEACHMENT OF CERTAIN OFFICERS BY SENATE.

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Sec. 3. OATH OR AFFIRMATION OF SENATORS; CONCURRENCE OF TWO-THIRDS REQUIRED.

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Sec. 4. JUDGMENT; INDICTMENT, TRIAL, AND PUNISHMENT.

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Sec. 5. SUSPENSION PENDING IMPEACHMENT; PROVISIONAL APPOINTMENTS.

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Sec. 6. JUDGES OF DISTRICT COURT; REMOVAL BY SUPREME COURT.

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Sec. 7. REMOVAL OF OFFICERS WHEN MODE NOT PROVIDED IN CONSTITUTION.

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Sec. 8. REMOVAL OF JUDGES BY GOVERNOR ON ADDRESS OF TWO-THIRDS OF EACH HOUSE OF LEGISLATURE.

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Sec. 9. REMOVAL OF PUBLIC OFFICER BY GOVERNOR WITH ADVICE AND CONSENT OF SENATE.

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ARTICLE 16. GENERAL PROVISIONS

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Sec. 2. EXCLUSIONS FROM OFFICE, JURY SERVICE AND RIGHT OF SUFFRAGE; PROTECTION OF RIGHT OF SUFFRAGE.

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Sec. 3. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 4. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 5. DISQUALIFICATION TO HOLD OFFICE BY GIVING OR OFFERING BRIBE.

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Sec. 6. APPROPRIATIONS FOR PRIVATE PURPOSES; STATE PARTICIPATION IN PROGRAMS FINANCED WITH PRIVATE OR FEDERAL FUNDS FOR REHABILITATION OF BLIND, CRIPPLED, OR PHYSICALLY OR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED PERSONS.

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Sec. 7. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 8. (Redesignated as Sec.

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Sec. 9. FORFEITURE OF RESIDENCE BY ABSENCE ON PUBLIC BUSINESS.

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Sec. 10. DEDUCTIONS FROM SALARY FOR NEGLECT OF DUTY.

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Sec. 11. USURY; RATE OF INTEREST IN ABSENCE OF LEGISLATION.

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Sec. 12. MEMBERS OF CONGRESS; OFFICERS OF UNITED STATES OR FOREIGN POWER; INELIGIBILITY TO HOLD OFFICE.

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Sec. 13. UNOPPOSED CANDIDATE FOR OFFICE.

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Sec. 13A. UNOPPOSED CANDIDATE FOR OFFICE OF POLITICAL SUBDIVISION.

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Sec. 14. CIVIL OFFICERS; RESIDENCE; LOCATION OF OFFICES.

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Sec. 15. SEPARATE AND COMMUNITY PROPERTY.

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Sec. 16. CORPORATIONS WITH BANKING AND DISCOUNTING PRIVILEGES.

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Sec. 17. OFFICERS TO SERVE UNTIL SUCCESSORS QUALIFIED.

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Sec. 18. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 19. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 20. MIXED ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES; INTOXICATING LIQUORS; WINES; REGULATION; LOCAL OPTION.

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Sec. 21. PUBLIC PRINTING AND BINDING; REPAIRS AND FURNISHINGS; CONTRACTS.

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Sec. 22. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 23. REGULATION OF LIVE STOCK; PROTECTION OF STOCK RAISERS; INSPECTIONS; BRANDS.

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Sec. 24. ROADS AND BRIDGES.

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Sec. 25. DRAWBACKS AND REBATEMENT TO CARRIERS, SHIPPERS, MERCHANTS, ETC.

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Sec. 26. HOMICIDE; LIABILITY IN DAMAGES.

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Sec. 27. VACANCIES FILLED FOR UNEXPIRED TERM.

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Sec. 29. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 30. DURATION OF OFFICES; RAILROAD COMMISSION.

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Sec. 30a. MEMBERS OF BOARDS; TERMS OF OFFICE.

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Sec. 30b. CIVIL SERVICE OFFICES; DURATION.

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Sec. 31. PRACTITIONERS OF MEDICINE.

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Sec. 32. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 33. SALARY OR COMPENSATION PAYMENTS TO PERSONS HOLDING MORE THAN ONE OFFICE.

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Sec. 34. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 35. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 36. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 37. LIENS OF MECHANICS, ARTISANS, AND MATERIAL MEN.

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Sec. 38. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 39. APPROPRIATIONS FOR HISTORICAL MEMORIALS.

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Sec. 40. HOLDING MORE THAN ONE OFFICE; EXCEPTIONS; RIGHT TO VOTE.

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Sec. 41. BRIBERY AND ACCEPTANCE OF BRIBES.

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Sec. 42. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 43. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 44. COUNTY TREASURER AND COUNTY SURVEYOR.

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Sec. 45. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 46. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 47. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 48. EXISTING LAWS TO CONTINUE IN FORCE.

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Sec. 49. PROTECTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY FROM FORCED SALE.

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Sec. 51. AMOUNT OF HOMESTEAD; USES.

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Sec. 52. DESCENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF HOMESTEAD; RESTRICTIONS ON PARTITION.

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Sec. 53. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 54. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 55. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 56. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 57. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 58. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 59. CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND PARKS AND RECREATIONAL FACILITIES; CONSERVATION AND RECLAMATION DISTRICTS.

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Sec. 60. (Repealed Aug.

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Sec. 61. COMPENSATION OF DISTRICT, COUNTY, AND PRECINCT OFFICERS; SALARY OR FEE BASIS; DISPOSITION OF FEES.

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Sec. 64. TERMS OF OFFICE, CERTAIN OFFICES.

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Sec. 65. TERMS OF OFFICE; AUTOMATIC RESIGNATION.

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Sec. 65A. (Repealed Nov.

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Sec. 66. PROTECTED BENEFITS UNDER CERTAIN PUBLIC RETIREMENT SYSTEMS.

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Sec. 67. STATE AND LOCAL RETIREMENT SYSTEMS.

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Sec. 68. ASSOCIATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCERS; ASSESSMENTS ON PRODUCT SALES TO FINANCE PROGRAMS OF MARKETING, PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND EDUCATION.

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Sec. 69. PRIOR APPROVAL OF EXPENDITURE OR EMERGENCY TRANSFER OF APPROPRIATED FUNDS.

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Sec. 70. (Added Nov.

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Sec. 71. TEXAS PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND SMALL BUSINESS INCUBATOR FUNDS; BONDS.

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Sec. 72. TEMPORARY REPLACEMENT OF PUBLIC OFFICER ON MILITARY ACTIVE DUTY.

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Sec. 73. VETERANS HOSPITALS.

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ARTICLE 17. MODE OF AMENDING THE CONSTITUTION OF THIS STATE

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Sec. 1. PROPOSED AMENDMENTS; PUBLICATION; SUBMISSION TO VOTERS; ADOPTION.

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Sec. 2. (Repealed Nov.

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A temporary provision may be included in a joint resolution to amend the Texas Constitution for a variety of reasons. A temporary provision can provide that the proposed constitutional amendment have a limited duration, but this is an exceedingly rare occurrence. The more common uses of temporary provisions are as saving provisions or transition provisions. A temporary saving provision "saves" from the application of a new or amended constitutional provision certain conduct or legal relationships that occurred before or existed on the effective date of the constitutional amendment.

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2. H.J.R. No. 58, Section 3, 76th Legislature, Regular Session, 1999.

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3. H.J.R. No. 75, Section 9.01, 77th Legislature, Regular Session, 2001.

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4. H.J.R. No. 109, Section 4, 82nd Legislature, Regular Session, 2011.

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5. S.J.R. No. 14, Section 2, 82nd Legislature, Regular Session, 2011.

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Marshall Scott May
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Shane M. Egan
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Grant St. Julian is ready to help you with all your criminal law matters. As an experienced professional, Grant can be of invaluable assistance in navigating the many legal challenges you may encounter.

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David Stith Curtis*
Lancaster Employment Law Attorney

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