Discipleship Tape Ministries
Give Us This Day Our Daily Bread

Give Us This Day
Our Daily Bread



The principle is so simple, yet so profound. It is so freeing, yet so seldom applied. It is so at odds with the natural mind, yet so confirming about the mind of God. On the one hand, it takes an incredible load off of the day to day experience of walking with God. On the other hand, it removes from many of us the thing we enjoy the most; the mind games that allow us to worry about the future and imagine the worst-case scenario.

The principle, of course, is the principle of living one day at a time. It is an enigma to many. To those with certain temperaments and spiritual gifts, it is much more difficult to grasp and to apply. But the truth of the matter is: it is God's prescription for a joyful and successful life. And whatever your temperament or gift might be, there is grace upon grace to enable you to obey that which is Scripturally commanded. And this commandment is clear and without dispute.

One day at a time. What a relief. It has two specific applications. One has to do with the subject of prayer and what we are to ask God for. The other has to do with anxiety and what we are to trust God for. Both have to do with experiencing the Spirit-controlled Christian life.

And so we continue our journey through the land of prayer. We are now getting down to the more practical elements of prayer, and we are going to have to make some decisions as to whether or not we will obey the word of God. While God gives us considerable latitude as to when we pray, how we pray, and why we pray, He also gives us some specific commandments, that if followed, allow our prayer lives to multiply in their effectiveness. This study involves one of those commandments.

We are looking in detail at Matthew, chapter six. We began with Jesus' explaining how not to pray. Then He proceeded to teach us how to approach God. Now He begins the process of teaching us what to pray about. That's what many of us have been waiting for. Here is the passage we are looking at:

Mt. 6:9 After this manner therefore pray ye: Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name.

10 Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven.

11 Give us this day our daily bread.

There are seven words in verse 11. They actually involve four different principles. Those principles, properly applied, could change some of our lives. Let's take them one at a time:

1- "Give" (the principle of total dependence)

We approach God's throne in an attitude of need and dependence. Unless He provides, we have nothing. Unless He meets our needs, our true needs will go unmet. This is not a "gimme" theology, because of what we are asking for. Nor is it a "give to me because I deserve it" theology. Grace is implied. God gives because He loves. He desires that we ask because it glorifies His name. But the word "give" also implies a gift; something totally undeserved. It is used in several ways in the New Testament to describe that which God provides freely without merit or response.

Jn 10:27 My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me:

28 And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand.

29 My Father, which gave them me, is greater than all; and no man is able to pluck them out of my Father's hand.

Jn 1:12 But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name:

Jn 3:16 For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.

God gives eternal life. God gave His only Son. The Father gave us to the Son. God alone gives the power to become His sons. These are free gifts, given by the sovereign hand of an omniscient, omnipotent God. So when we ask God to "Give us this day", we are asking Him to open His storehouse of grace and provide a certain thing from His treasury of love. Never do we demand or presumptuously assume we deserve such things. If, however, we are asking God to give us something He already promised us, and we are doing so in a spirit of humility and gratitude, then we are asking on good ground.

When we say "give us" we are saying, "Apart from you, I have nothing. Dear God, please meet my needs today in Jesus. We do not deserve so much as the breath we breathe, but Lord, you have granted life to us as a gift. Therefore, as you promised, give..."

2- "Give us...our" (the principle of the oneness of the body of Christ)

Once again, Jesus reminds us that our concerns are not confined to our own needs. Our needs are but a small part of what we are to pray for. The "us" stands for the body of Christ. The whole body of Christ. The body of Christ in Indonesia. The body of Christ in China. The body of Christ in Rwanda. The body of Christ in Bosnia. The body of Christ in Russia, Romania, Hungary, Finland, Scotland, Nigeria. The body of Christ in that city in Florida where a hurricane recently left thousands homeless. The body of Christ in California where forest fires gutted hundreds of homes. "Give us .....our." That's the way all our prayers should begin. Take a look at your prayer list. Ask yourself:

"Do I pray daily for believers in distant lands where poverty, disease, starvation, and political upheavals are threatening their lives?"

"Do I pray daily for believers in countries where being a Christian is still a crime? Where persecution has driven the church underground?" The fall of the iron curtain has freed many believers to worship once again publicly. But conversely, Muslim nations around the world are tightening their grip on anything that even closely resembles Christianity, and there are still the Red Chinas and the Cubas of this world where being a believer still is considered rebellion against a Communist regime.

"Do I pray regularly for missionaries and missions organizations who are struggling to take the good news to men and women who have never heard the gospel? Do I pray daily for the missionaries my own church supports?" You say, "Pray daily? Why daily?" Because you pray for your own needs daily, that's why. And because Jesus said to pray every day for the needs of the whole body.

Several things will happen when you do.

1- Your problems will be seen in the light of the greater problems of those around the world.

2- Your concept of the body of Christ will grow.

3- You will become acquainted with the missionaries who are pleading for your prayers as much as your support...and

4- You probably will end up giving more and going more because that's what prayer does...it sensitizes your spirit so that you are willing to give of yourself to those you pray for.

So the "give us...our" part of the prayer is God's wide-angle lens in action. He wants us to see more than the tiny world we live in. He wants us to journey on the wings of prayer to distant lands and to the ghettos and the hospitals of His world, a world that encompasses all believers everywhere. If you don't have a prayer list that takes you around the world, you aren't praying the way Jesus instructed you to pray. You are to pray, "Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name. Thy kingdom come, thy will be done, on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day...our." Our what? That brings us to principle #3, and that unique concept we looked at when this lesson began.

3- Give us this day (the principle of living and asking one day at a time.)

This is God's loving solution to our presumption and our anxiety all rolled into one. He knows the problems we face. We are likely to borrow from tomorrow. If we are proud, we borrow presumptuously, and assume things will only get better; or at worst stay as they are. If we are depressed or discouraged, we borrow anxiety, imagining the worst, and then filling our minds with negative fears and frustrating worries about what tomorrow holds. God knew we couldn't handle either problem. So He, in eternity past, came up with an incredible solution.

It is the principle of days. He decided to divide life into neat twenty-four hour segments which would never, ever vary. The seasons would change. Life's seasons would change, as well. We would go from youths to teens to adults to senior citizens. But no day will ever have one second more or one second less than twenty-four hours in it. That is why we can schedule things on into the next century. It is why we can tell someone: "I'll meet you tomorrow at 7:30". Tomorrow will begin at 12:01. It always has. It always will. The sun will go down, the sun will go up. Day will be followed by night. Night will be followed by day. It always has, it always will, until Jesus comes.

It is a sign of God's great faithfulness. Lamentations 3:22 says it so beautifully:

Lam. 3:22 It is of the LORD'S mercies that we are not consumed, because his compassions fail not.

23 They are new every morning: great is thy faithfulness.

New every morning. Every time the sun comes up, God renews His covenant, reaffirms His faithfulness, demonstrates His mercy. Every morning. Every 24 hours. Night falls. It always has. The sun comes up. It always will. And every time it does, God is reminding us that He designed life in workable segments so that we can grasp the constancy of His love and appropriate the consistency of His mercy.

God divided life into days from the very beginning. We read in Genesis 1:

Gen. 1:1 In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

3 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.

4 And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.

5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.

God divided the light from the darkness to typify the upcoming conflict between darkness and light. We know that from reading John 1:

Jn 1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

2 The same was in the beginning with God.

3 All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.

4 In him was life; and the life was the light of men.

5 And the light shineth in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not.

6 There was a man sent from God, whose name was John.

7 The same came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all men through him might believe.

8 He was not that Light, but was sent to bear witness of that Light.

9 That was the true Light, which lighteth every man that cometh into the world.

10 He was in the world, and the world was made by him, and the world knew him not.

11 He came unto his own, and his own received him not.

12 But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name:

So God divided light from darkness because man was going to sin and darkness would invade the kingdom of light. God, however, had a solution. The Word would one day be made flesh. God would come to earth. His name would be The Light of the World. The darkness would try to overtake The Light. But it would be unable to. Ultimately, the Light (Jesus) would overtake the darkness and establish His kingdom, first in the hearts of men and women, then ultimately His kingdom would come and there would be no more night for the glory of The Light would have extinguished the darkness once and for all.

God then, divided night and day for several reasons.

The first was so that His mercy, which endureth forever, could be experienced in all of its freshness at regular intervals. The second was to illustrate the spiritual battle going on in the heavenlies between the powers of darkness and the kingdom of light, a battle that ultimately would be won as the darkness was totally extinguished in the kingdom to come.

A third reason was so that there would be regimented times for man to rest from his labors and specified times for man to work. A fourth reason was so that God could demonstrate, by dividing days into weeks, what the sabbath rest of God was all about, and how man could enter into that rest.

4-Give us this day (our daily bread)

But perhaps the next most important reason was that man, unable to grasp God's mercy, the reality of spiritual warfare, the need to work and to rest physically, and the need to work and to worship spiritually, without some kind of starting and stopping place, also needed to understand the life of faith. He needed to understand that he could not borrow trouble from the future; that worry would become the cardinal evidence of the absence of trust, and thus one of the great stumblingblocks to walking with God. It was to this issue that Jesus clearly spoke in Matthew 6:31-34

Mt. 6:31 Therefore take no thought, saying, What shall we eat? or, What shall we drink? or, Wherewithal shall we be clothed?

32 (For after all these things do the Gentiles seek:) for your heavenly Father knoweth that ye have need of all these things.

33 But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you.

34 Take therefore no thought for the morrow: for the morrow shall take thought for the things of itself. Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof.

The NAS translates it like this:

Mt. 6:31 "Do not be anxious then, saying, 'What shall we eat?' or 'What shall we drink?' or 'With what shall we clothe ourselves?'

32 "For all these things the Gentiles eagerly seek; for your heavenly Father knows that you need all these things.

33 "But seek first His kingdom and His righteousness; and all these things shall be added to you.

34 "Therefore do not be anxious for tomorrow; for tomorrow will care for itself. {Each} day has enough trouble of its own.

You cannot really separate Matthew 6:11 from Matthew 6:34. The one is the conclusion of the other. The issue has to do with God's provision and God's sovereignty. Both are intertwined in the concept of living and walking by faith. Our prayers are to be daily because we have daily needs. They are to be focused on one day's needs and one day's problems because that is the scope of time God designed for us to focus on. That way we can appropriate God's mercies, which are new every morning and confessing our sins, reestablish our fellowship, if we have not already done so, and place the total weight of our trust on Him for a time frame we have the capacity to trust Him for.

You can liken it to the headlights on a car. You would like to get in your car at night when you leave the mall or leave the church and be able to see your house. But you can't. You live too far away. So the only thing you can do is start the car, turn on your headlights, and head in the direction of home. If you are going to sit in the parking lot and wait until you can see your house, you'll sit there the rest of your life. You have to drive by faith, trusting your headlights as far as they shine. Surely enough, when you get to the end of that beam of light, they are shining yet that much farther, so you keep going, and surely enough, so long as you have not taken any wrong turns, you turn into the driveway, and now the headlights tell you that you are home at last.

The Spirit-controlled life is like that. God's light shines far enough for us to see one day at a time. It is true, that both experience and God's promises give us glimpses of the journey, and His word clearly tells us how that last leg of the journey will turn out. But we can't see the future. We can only see the Light. So long as we follow that Light, one day at a time, we will make it home without a need for fear or anxiety. Should we, however, begin to fret about a possible train up ahead, or a red light that might be stuck or a chug hole we might fall into, we will be frustrated, anxious, and fearful. Until the Light lets us see those things, we are to concentrate on the road in front of us. The length of that road is one day. No more. No less.

God has given us clear reasons, and a clear portrait. The portrait is found in Exodus 16. The children of Israel needed food. God, in eternity past, had designed exactly what they needed in His precious, priceless, heavenly bakery. It was called "manna". Now, mind you, it wasn't what they wanted. But it was all they needed. And mind you, they complained. They wanted more variety, more flexibility, more choice, and most of all, they wanted it in larger quantities, so they didn't have to go get it every day. God, however, knew better. He knew that if they were to remain dependent and not be anxious about whether or not what they had would last, He would have to design the manna so that its shelf life was no more than 24 hours. Only on the Sabbath could they gather for two days, indicating the sabbath rest. Otherwise, anything they tried to gather in advance would spoil and be useless.

Ex. 16:6 And Moses and Aaron said unto all the children of Israel, At even, then ye shall know that the LORD hath brought you out from the land of Egypt:

7 And in the morning, then ye shall see the glory of the LORD; for that he heareth your murmurings against the LORD: and what are we, that ye murmur against us?

8 And Moses said, This shall be, when the LORD shall give you in the evening flesh to eat, and in the morning bread to the full; for that the LORD heareth your murmurings which ye murmur against him: and what are we? your murmurings are not against us, but against the LORD.

Ex. 16:14 And when the dew that lay was gone up, behold, upon the face of the wilderness there lay a small round thing, as small as the hoar frost on the ground.

15 And when the children of Israel saw it, they said one to another, It is manna: for they wist not what it was. And Moses said unto them, This is the bread which the LORD hath given you to eat.

17 And the children of Israel did so, and gathered, some more, some less.

Ex. 16:19 And Moses said, Let no man leave of it till the morning.

20 Notwithstanding they hearkened not unto Moses; but some of them left of it until the morning, and it bred worms, and stank: and Moses was wroth with them.

21 And they gathered it every morning, every man according to his eating: and when the sun waxed hot, it melted.

Man was no different then than he is today. They tried to store it up, save it, or leave it there until the next day. It didn't work. It still doesn't. The principle was: God provides bread daily. We will see what bread is in a moment. He provides it daily. We can't get next week's in advance. We can't save up yesterday's so we won't have to trust Him another day. We can't. He designed the bread principle to teach us about living one day at a time, and trusting God's provisions one day at a time, as well.

Then Jesus came. And He said,

Mt. 4:4 But he answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God.

Lk 22:19 And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me.

Jn 6:31 Our fathers did eat manna in the desert; as it is written, He gave them bread from heaven to eat.

32 Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Moses gave you not that bread from heaven; but my Father giveth you the true bread from heaven.

33 For the bread of God is he which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world.

34 Then said they unto him, Lord, evermore give us this bread.

35 And Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst.

So the principle comes full-circle. Jesus is the Bread of Life. He it is, (and He alone) who can feed the hungry soul of man. But He does it one day at a time. He expects us to come to Him daily and ask of Him and feed on Him and rest in Him for that day's needs and for that day's supply of spiritual nourishment, as well.

When we ask God to "give us this day our daily bread", then, we are asking for two things:

1- The physical needs we have that are essential to His fulfilling His plan for our lives. (for His kingdom to come and His will to be done on earth as it is in heaven)

2- The spiritual sustenance we need to be able to trust Him for one day and rest in that day, knowing that the future needs will be met one day at a time, as well.

That is what we are asking God to do when we ask Him to "give us this day our daily bread". We are asking Him to meet the needs of the whole body of Christ for this one day. We are asking Him to provide our physical needs as He promised. He promised food enough to sustain us and clothes enough to protect us for one day. Period. You can ask for more. You can ask for a new car, or for that new television, or even for a year's supply of Big Macs if you want. You have that right. And He may or may not grant it.

But what you can be assured of as you pray is that if you ask Him, He will provide what He has promised for that day. It may not be steak and potatoes. It may not be pizza or tacos. It will, however, be what you need that will best keep your focus on the Bread come down from heaven, even Jesus Christ. That is the only way His kingdom can come; His will be done on earth as it is in heaven. And as you complain that you don't know what might happen tomorrow, you actually remove yourself from His perfect will and sin by disobeying His commandment to live one day at a time. The reason is simple: "Each day has enough trouble of its own." (Mt 6:34) Amen. That is certainly true. And God knows that our capacity to trust Him is not sufficient for us to peer out beyond that expanse of time, so He settled it once and for all.

It doesn't mean you don't plan for the future. Scripture is clear on that. It does mean you don't presume on the future. And it does mean you don't worry about the future. In order to assure that, you trust Him with the future and you pray about and think about the twenty-four hours immediately before you.

Now let's make that practical. It brings to light and I trust to life some principles we simply must apply if we are to live in the rest of God.

We are to pray consistently for the whole body of Christ.

That means we must be aware of their needs, concerned about those in the body who are hurting or who are more needful than we, and rather than badgering God for more "things" to make us secure, we are to be thinking about how we can share what things we have with those whose daily needs are greater than ours and whose storehouse of supply seems less full than ours. And throughout the world, there are literally millions of believers who fit into both categories.

It means our prayer list ought to be as long as the world is broad and as unselfish as Jesus was. He gave His life a ransom for many. He laid aside His royal robes and donned the cloak of a slave in order to meet the needs of the most common of men. He did it for the likes of us. Oh, dear God, give us His perspective of giving our lives away. We simply must pray daily for those whose lives have touched ours; for those whose ministries we support; for those who are reaching out into the recesses of the world where we cannot go. We must develop a prayer list that includes all of the missionaries our church supports. We need to study what is happening in each of their lives and in each of their countries so we can pray effectively and personally. And we must learn how to pray for those in the body of Christ around the world who are in the midst of warfare, both spiritual and physical. Otherwise, when we ask God to "give us this day our daily bread", we are really saying, "Lord, I don't care about those other guys, what will you do for me today?" That surely must break His heart. And it must destroy our testimony as well, for "By this shall all men know that ye are my disciples, by the love you have one for another". Love, remember, is giving your life away; physically to meet needs and spiritually in prayer.

We must learn to focus on the day at hand.

It's incredible how deceitful Satan is. By causing us to focus on things we cannot control and on things beyond tomorrow, he has successful taken us out of the Sabbath rest designed for us and caused us to be anxious and thus to sin. God may not send you that check you want which will guarantee the future. He may rather want you to ask Him for an amount sufficient to meet today's needs. He may not remove that pain or guarantee that He will. But He can give you grace for today to endure it and peace for today to rejoice in it. You say, "But that means I'll have to ask Him again tomorrow." Now, you're beginning to get it. Yes, tomorrow you ask again for enough grace or enough healing or enough strength for that day's trouble. You say, "But doesn't that get old?" Not to God. That's why the manna only lasted a day. It would have been easier for Him to have given them a week's supply, and not had to go through the daily delivery service or listening to their daily complaining. But He knew what they needed to keep their eyes on Him.

You ask for one day's daily bread. Bread is the basic sustaining factor in life. It isn't fancy. It isn't necessarily tasty. And it may not seem to offer any variety. But if God provides it, it is a blessing. And should He give more, (and He usually does) it is simply a matter of grace (His undeserved blessing and power given out of an unlimited supply of love).

We must never forget that everything we have is a gift, and a gift is undeserved and unearned.

The great missing link in most of our lives is a grateful heart. We have a long list of "Dear God, please gimme" requests and such a short list of "Dear God, thank you for..." praises. That's another reason we pray one day at a time. We have such short memories. We pray for long-term blessings and forget when they come that we prayed for them.

But if we pray one day at a time and thank God one day at a time, we are constantly in an attitude of gratitude. You say, how do I pray for my own needs? Start by praying for Scriptural character qualities. Ask God to give you enough sensitivity for that day to be aware of those around you who hurt. Then, at the end of the day, stop and thank Him that He did. You know He did, because you prayed in accordance with His will. You say, "Well I was unaware of it." Maybe you're so insensitive you don't know when you are sensitive. That's okay. Pray again tomorrow, and ask Him to let you know when He answers. Meanwhile, thank Him anyway. You may have missed it, but God keeps His word.

Pray for the capacity to love the unlovable. Pray for the joy of the Lord. Pray for the peace that passes understanding. (Phil 4:6-8) To maintain it, remember, according to that passage, you have to:

1-stop worrying (the minute you begin to worry, you substitute fear for faith, and quench the Spirit)

2-In every situation instead you must pray. (To stop worrying without praying is to bottle up your anxiety, rather than transferring it to God)

3-You must stop and give thanks (Then, the passage says, and only then, does God replace your worried heart with the balm of God's peace and the comfort of God's love).

Pray for deeper understanding of the Scriptures. Pray for the ability to make Godly choices. Pray for the mind of Christ to give you a servant heart.

And how do we pray for others? We pray that God will meet their needs, both physically and spiritually, for that day. That He will give them grace to both endure and to overcome for that one twenty-four hour period. You say, "That means I'll have to pray for them again tomorrow!" Exactly. And the day after. You say, "But I'll be praying all day long!" Exactly. That's what "pray without ceasing" is all about. No, you don't pray instead of working, but you can often pray as you work, as you drive to work, as you wait for your next patient or your next customer or your next instruction.

You can pray as wash dishes, as you vacuum, as you wait in line, as you change diapers, as you walk or run or jog through the neighborhood. You can take five minutes longer in the secret place. Or ten. Or twenty. You can rotate who you pray for, but don't sell yourself short by limiting your prayer list to the number of people who will fit into a predesignated time span. The whole day is your prayer time. And the whole world is your prayer list. And an incredible, wonderful God is your supplier.

And what He wants to supply is one day's needs, for both kinds of bread: the kind you get at the local grocery store, and the kind God sends from His heavenly supermarket of grace. Both kinds are important to Him. And the purpose of both and the timing of both are so that "His kingdom can come and His will can be done on earth as it is in heaven."

How about you? Are you praying around the world? Or just around your world? Are you praying for the needs of those in Christ who have less of this world's goods than you? Or are you badgering God to give you more? Are you praying so intensely for those who have less that your heart yearns to give some of what you have to answer that prayer? Or are you expecting God to find it somewhere else so it won't cost you anything?

Are you focusing on the day at hand? Or worrying about the things you cannot control that may never come to pass? Are you praying for one day at a time? Are you remembering to thank God at the end of each day for His answers? Are you wanting manna for the week, so you won't have to come to the heavenly cafeteria of life so often?

God loves you, beloved. He loves you so much that in eternity past, He lovingly designed life to be lived one day at a time. And He designed prayer, accordingly. He taught us to pray for one day's needs, for the whole world, for today. Tomorrow is a new day. His compassions fail not. They are new every morning. He will renew His love and His commitment to us tomorrow. Dear God, can we do any less?

One day at a time. The principle that removes fear, presumption, and anxiety. The principle that gives us the focus of heaven while we live on earth. The principle that allows our hearts to seek His best, while remaining at rest for a period of time we can trust Him for. It makes so much sense. But then, it ought to. It's the will of God in Christ Jesus for us. By His grace, may we now go put it into practice.

Focus on Application

1- Begin compiling a prayer list that includes the whole world, in particular, the whole body of Christ. Include the names of all the missionaries you support or your church supports. Include the people whose names you do not know who live in lands under oppression or under severe economic strife or engaged in war, either physical or spiritual. Pray for the soldiers around the world who are in Christ that they might be testimonies of His grace in the midst of the conflicts they are in. Pray for Pastors of other churches as well your own.

2- Begin praying for one day's needs and one day's grace at a time. Don't just think about it. Do it. Ask God to reveal the miracle of manna; the principle of partaking daily of God's provisions, not presuming upon His grace for the day to follow.

3- Expand your prayer time to include the whole day. Make prayer that which occupies you and consumes you whenever your mind is free to think. Make prayer a continual, unending conversation with God that begins when you awaken and does not stop until you close your eyes at night to sleep. Meditate through the Scriptures as you pray. Meditate on Matthew 6:31-35 and Matthew 6:11 this week. Ask God to make those passages real to you. Ask Him to open your eyes that you may experience the wonder of His word in your life. And don't forget to thank Him each day for each day's provisions.


© Russell Kelfer. All rights reserved.

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